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Sunday, October 14, 2012

6-2-1 Adhik Maas /Purushottam Maas

ADHIK MAAS/ADDITIONAL OR EXTRA MONTH/ PURSHOTTAM MAAS

What is Adhik Maas
Adhik maas is an extra month or additional month in the Hindu calendar. Adhik Maas is also known as Mal Maas or Purushottam maas. When there occurs Adhik Maas in a year, that year has thirteen months instead of twelve months. 
When does Adhik Maas occur - 
Whenever Sankranti does not fall within one month, in that situation, Adhik maas occurs. 
When there are two Amavasyas in one and the same month, in that situation, Adhik maas occurs. 
According to the Bhavishya Puran, the difference between the lunar month and solar month is called Adhik maas.
Important things about Adhik Maas - 
The Hindus follow two types of calendars - The solar calendar and lunar calendar. The solar year is made up of approximately 365 days whereas the lunar year is made up of approximately 354 days. Thus there is a gap of about 11 days between these two types years. This gap increases each year and in about three years it equals to one month approximately. To cover this gap, one additional month is added to the lunar year in approximately two and a half years. Thus Adhik maas or extra month balances the lunar and the solar calendar. 
Pure month ( Shuddha maas ) and impure month ( Ashuddha Maas or Mal maas ) -
Adhik maas has one name i. e. Aashadh or Shravan or Bhadrapad etc. but it has about 60 days or two months. These two months are known as the first month and the second month. 
Illustration showing Suddha maas and Ashuddha maas -
In the Vikram Samwat 2069, the month of Bhadrapad was the additional month or Adhik maas. So Bhadrapad was known as first Bhadrapad and the second Bhadrapad. 
In these two months there are four Pakshas i. e. Krishan Paksha - Shukla Paksha - Krishna Paksha - and Shukla Paksha respectively. 
The Krishna Paksha of the first Bhadhrapad and the Shukla Paksha of the second Paksha are known as the pure or Shuddha Bhadrapad. 
And thr Shukla Paksha of the first Bhadrapad and the Krishna Paksha of the second Bhadrapad is known as the Adhik maas or Mal maas or Purushottam maas. Thus - 
(1) From the first Bhadrapad Krishna Paksha ( From Pratipada to Amavasya ) i.e. from 3. 8.2012 to 17.8.2012 was the Suddha maas or pure maas. And from second Bhadrapad Shukla Paksha ( from Pratipada to Purnima ) i.e. from 17.9.2012 to 30.9.2012 is pure maas or Suddha maas. ( Namely, out of the four Paksha, the first Paksha and  the fourth Paksha form the Shddha Maas ) 
(2) From first Bhadrapad Sukla Paksha to second Bhadarapad Krishna Paksha i.e. from 18.8.2012 to 16.9.2012 was known as Adhik Maas or Mal Maas or impure Maas or Purushottam Maas. ( Namely, out of the four Paksha , the second and the third Paksha dorm the Adhik Maas or Mal Maas.)
Thus in the light of the above illustration, it can be concluded that whatever the Vrat or festivals are celebrated, will be celebrated in the pure month or Suddha maas. In the above illustration the Shuddha maas is from 3.8.2012 to 17.8.2012 and from 1.9.2012 to 16.9.2012. 

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