TEACHING OF CHANAKYA (CHANKYA NITI ) चाणक्य नीति
Chanakya was the adviser and the Prime minister to the emperor Chandragupt of the Maurya dyansty . He was the teacher at Takshashila university and is widely believed to be the instrumental in the creation of the Maurya Empire. Given below are some of selected verses from Chanakya Niti :-
He is a true kinsman or friend who does not forsake you at the time of your illness, when you are in trouble ,in famine ,when enemy attacks you, in a king's court and at the cremation ground.
He who gives up what is imperishable for that which is perishable , loses that which is imperishable,and doubtlessly loses that which is perishable too .
Avoid or forsake the friend who talks sweetly in your presence but in your absence he puts obstacles in your way and tries to harm you because he is like a pitcher of poison which has milk on the top .
Every mountain does not have a jewel (gem ),nor does every elephant have a pearl( ruby) on his head.Sadhus (good persons)are also not found every where and there are no sandal trees in every forest.
Chapter -3 Verse - 1
In this world whose family is blameless ? Who does not suffer from illness? Who has not suffered due to his addictions? The person who is always happy,is rarely found.
If there are a wicked man or rascal and serpent ,it is better to choose the serpent and not the wicked man because the serpent bites you only once but the wicked man causes you harm at every step.
Avoid the company of a fool for he is no different from a two legged animal. He (the fool) pains you with his bitter words like an unseen thorn.
Seeta was kidnapped because of her too much beauty.Ravan was killed because he was very much arrogant.The king Bali had to suffer a lot because he was extremely charitable. So Chankya says that excess of everthing is bad.
Nothing is heavy for the strong or capable.No place is too distant for a businessman.No country is foreign for a learned person.There can be no enemy for the person who speaks sweet words.
The whole forest becomes full of fragrance by a single tree of sweet smelling flowers.In the same way the whole family becomes famous by the birth of a worthy or a dutiful son (or in the same way worthy or a dutiful son adds grace to his family.)
Laxmi,the goddess of wealth resides of her own accord at the place where the foolish are not honoured,food grain is well stored up and where no quarrel arises between husband and wife (or where husband and wife do not quarrel with each other.)
When a person is distressed,he can get relief
from three things - good progeny (children), a good wife and the company of good persons.
A wise person must consider again and again,how many friends he has, whether the time is good or bad ,if it is bad how it can be made good,how is his dwelling place,how much he earns and how much he has to spend, who he is and how much power he has.
Knowledg or learning is a friend of a person in abroad (in a foreign country),his wife is friend in his house ,medicine in illness and good deeds are his friends at the time of his death.
There is no water like the rain water, no strength like self strength,no light is like that of eyes,and nothing is dearer than food grains.
In this world wealth,life and young age are unsteady(unstable).In this unsteady world only religious merit is steady or immovable.
Whether the work is important or not important (big or small) once it is begun,it must not be left incompleted. One must learn this merit from the lion.(A lion does not let the prey go away when it is caught by him).
Although an ass is tired,he continues to carry his burden,he is unmindful of cold and heat,he is contented under every situation.A person should learn these three things from an ass.
The person who does not shy or hesitate in monetary dealings,in acquiring knowledge,in eating,in other dealings,becomes happy.
One should feel satisfied with the following three things-his own wife,food ,and wealth but one must not feel satisfied with study,penance and charity.
A learned person is admired by people.A learned person is respected everywhere,and gets wealth through learning and it is only the learning which is worshipped everywhere.
A poor person can not be considered as destitute if he is learned but a person who is devoid of learning (who does not have the wealth of learning )is considered as destitute in every way.
A person should take the next step carefully,he should drink the water which is filtered through a piece of clean cloth,he must speak only the words which have the sanction of scriptures and he must do the act after considering well.
The power of destiny is infinite,it can make a beggar a king and a king a beggar in no time.A rich man becomes poor and a poor man becomes rich.
A house holder can be happy whose sons and daughters are talented ,whose wife speaks sweetly,who has the enough wealth to satisfy his proper desires,who has the love for his wife ,whose servants are obedient,in whose house hospitality is shown (guests are honoured),where God is worshipped every day ,where delicious food and cool water is available ,who has the company of good persons.The owner of such a house is happy and blessed.
In this world the person is happy who is generous towards his relatives ,kind to strangers,indifferent to the wicked,loving to the good,shrewd in his dealings with the base ,frank with the learned,courageous with enemies,humble with the elders and who behaves cleverly with the women folk.This world exists because of such persons.
The persons who are ready to face and remove the present and the future troubles,and those who are able to think over the remedies for the calamities that may arise (they both),are happy but those who are fatalist are sure to suffer (to be ruined).
The person whose actions are disorganised is happy neither among the society nor in the forest .Among the society social contacts grieves him and in the forest the loneliness (seclusion) grieves him.
The golden deer was not created by Brahma,neither was it made by anyone else,it was never seen before ,nor it was ever heard of,even then shree Ram desired to have it,and ran after it.So it has rightly been said, "When time of destruction comes ,the person begins to think adversly.
A man attains greatness by his merits,not simply by occupying an exalted seat.A crow can not be called an eagle(garuda)simply because he sits on the top of a tall palace.
The person who is praised by others as great,is regarded as worthy though he may be really void of all merits.But the man who sings his own praises,lowers himself in the estimation of others even though he may be Indra (the possessors of all excellences.)
Note - For Hindi translation click here