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Friday, March 1, 2013

7-2-7-Teachings of Koutilya

Teachings of Koutilya /kautilya /कौटिल्य की शिक्षा 

The name of Koutilya was Vishnu sharma. He belongrd to the Kutil clan so he was called Koutilya . He belonged to the Chanak family. So he was called Chanakya.  He was the adviser and the Prime minister to the emperor Chandragupt of the Maurya dyansty . He was the teacher at Takshashila university and is widely believed to be the instrumental in the creation of the Maurya Empire. Given below are some of selected practical teachings  from Chanakya Niti :-
1-  On Friend ship 
(A) Avoid or forsake the friend who talks sweetly in your presence but in your absence he puts obstacles in your way and tries to harm you because he is like a pitcher of poison which has some milk on the top. 2/5
(B) Do not trust a bad companion nor even trust your friend because when he gets angry with you ,he may disclose your secrets. 2/6
(C) He is a true kinsman or friend who does not forsake you at the time of your illness,when you are in trouble,famine,enemy attacks you, in a king's court and at the cremation ground. (1/12)
(2 ) How to behave with a son? 
Fondle the son until he is five years old, then keep him under strict control for another ten years until he is fifteen years old. But when he attains his sixteenth year, treat him like a friend. (3/18)
(3) Heaven is here
He , whose son is obedient and under control, whose wife behaves according to his wishes, and he who is content with his riches, for that person and family heaven is here.(2/13)
(4) Good son 
(A) The whole forest becomes full of fragrance by a single tree of sweet smelling flowers,in the same way  a family becomes famous by the birth of a worthy or dutiful son (in the same way a worthy or a dutiful son adds grace to his family.) (3/14)
(B) What is the use of having many sons if they cause grief and vexation? It is better to have only one son from whom the whole family gets happiness and remains peaceful. (3/17)
(5) Bad son 
As a dried tree, if catches fire, can cause the whole forest to burn. In the same way, a bad son brings bad name to the family and whole family is blamed. (3/15)
(6) Rules for a student 
The student, who renounces the following eight things ,can get knowledge (good education) -
His lust, anger , greed , desire for sweets, sense of decorating his body, jokes , excess sleep and excess decoration of his body.(11/10)
(7) Truth
Truth is the only thing that is perpetual. The earth is supported by the power of truth. It is the power of truth that makes the sun shine and winds blow. The fact is that every thing is based on truth. (5/19)
(8)  Religious conduct
Our body, our life, and wealth are mortal. They are not immortal. Death is always nearby. In this world every thing is perishable except religion. Religion is the only thing that is perpetual so the  man must follow the religious acts and collect the wealth of religion.(12/12)
(9)  Reasoning 
As there is fragrance in a flower,oil in sesame seed,fire in wood , ghee in milk, molasses in sugarcane, in the same way soul (spirit) is in the body, and can be known (sought) through reasoning or discrimination.(7/21)
(10) Worldly happiness/pleasure 
If a person has a beautiful wife, wealth, virtuous sons and grandsons, the house of that person is more beautiful than the house of Indra or Indra Lok.
(11) Satisfaction 
A person must feel satisfied with the three things - his own wife, food and wealth.But he must not feel satisfied with the following three things - getting knowledge (education),Jap and charity.(7/4)
(12) What to do  
While walking one should put the next step carefully, one should drink water filtered through a piece of clean cloth, one should speak the only things which have the sanction of the Shastras, and do the act after considering or thinking carefully in mind.(10/2)
(13) Where to live and where not to live 
(A) One must not live in the country or at the place where one is not respected, where one can not earn his livelihood, where there are no brothers or friends and where there is no means of  acquiring knowledge.(1/8)
(B) One must not stay even for a single day at the place where there are not these five persons- a wealthy man, a well versed Brahmin, a river and a physician.(1/9)
(C) A person should not go to the place or a country where there are no means of earning , the people are not afraid of anything or anyone, have no sense of shame, no cleverness, and no sacrifice. (1/10)
(14) What does not happen when what is done
When a person works hard, poverty vanishes, when a person chants god's name, he becomes free from sins, by remaining silent, a person can avoid quarrel, when a person is awake or cautious, there is no fear of anything.
(15) The situations that lead to destruction 
(A) The person who is extravagant and spends too much money, who quarrels over the things without any proper reason, who makes haste in his every action, he is sure to ruin.
(B) Sinfully acquired wealth remains  for only ten years , in the eleventh year the hole money totally disappears (vanishes). (15/6)

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